This study presents an overview and analysis of the roles and tasks of the European Labour Authority (ELA), with a view to highlight the strengths and possible weaknesses of the current set up and suggest how to support its effective operation. The importance of the tasks assigned to ELA is testified by the size of the phenomena it has to oversee. In 2017, there were 17 million EU citizens living in an EU Member State other than their country of citizenship. Mobile workers (either working or looking for a job) were 9.5 million, posted workers 1.8 million and cross-border workers 1.4 million. The provisional agreement on the establishment of the ELA provides a comprehensive range of tasks, which can be seen as a complete cycle: from information provision to assistance and support in implementing EU legislation, facilitation of joint and concerted actions, mediation and conciliation in case of disputes, and the realisation of studies and analyses.