Internationaler Handel

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Im Bereich des internationalen Handels besteht ein komplexes System weltweiter Regelungen, die im Rahmen von Vereinbarungen der Welthandelsorganisation sowie bilateralen und multilateralen Abkommen beschlossen wurden. Die Freihandelsabkommen wirken sich zunehmend auf die Bürgerrechte aus. Gemäß dem Vertrag von Lissabon muss die EU-Handelspolitik unter Berücksichtigung der Grundsätze und Ziele der Außenpolitik der Union gestaltet werden. Hierzu gehören die Förderung der Rechtsstaatlichkeit, der Menschenrechte und der nachhaltigen Entwicklung.

Der EWSA ist der Auffassung, dass dies ein Leitprinzip für die Handelsverhandlungen und ‑beziehungen der EU sein sollte. Er gewährleistet die Konsensbildung von Unternehmen, Arbeitnehmern, Freiberuflern, Landwirten, Verbrauchern und anderen wichtigen Interessenträgern und schafft damit einen echten Mehrwert. Er leitet die Standpunkte der Zivilgesellschaft und Interessengruppen sowohl bei den Verhandlungen über Handelsabkommen als auch bei deren Umsetzung auf effiziente Weise an die internationalen politischen Entscheidungsträger weiter. Er hat einen Begleitausschuss Internationaler Handel eingerichtet, um sicherzustellen, dass die Zivilgesellschaft in die Gestaltung der EU-Handelspolitik einbezogen wird. Zudem leitet er die Internen Beratungsgruppen, die auf Grundlage der Kapitel „Handel und nachhaltige Entwicklung“ in den EU-Handelsabkommen der neuen Generation eingerichtet wurden. Aufgabe dieser Beratungsgruppen, denen Vertreter der Zivilgesellschaft (u. a. aus den Reihen des EWSA) angehören, ist es, Probleme im Bereich Handel und nachhaltige Entwicklung aufzuzeigen, die bei der Umsetzung eines Handelsabkommens auftreten können.

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Opinion
in Erarbeitung (updated on 11/09/2020)
Referenz: 
REX/532-EESC-2020
Plenartagung: 
554 -
Sep 16, 2020 Sep 18, 2020

Key points

Global supply chains (GSC) are key and complex in economic activities across the world and in global trade. Economic growth, job creation and entrepreneurship are also contested by evidence of negative implications for working conditions as well as for sustainability in some supply chains.

The COVID-19 crisis has unveiled the serious downfalls related to highly fragmented and undiversified supply chains. It exposed the vulnerability of workers' health and safety, and it highlighted violations of human rights. Trade will have to play a key role in promoting a sustainable economic recovery. However, stronger instruments need to deliver on a socially and environmentally responsible business, trade and investment agenda.

GSC need to become more resilient, diversified and responsible, and ambitious actions need to ensure they contribute to a fairer economic and social model, based on sustainability and decent work.

Opinion
verabschiedet on 30/10/2019
Referenz: 
REX/517-EESC-2019
Plenartagung: 
547 -
Oct 30, 2019 Oct 31, 2019

Stellungnahme des Ausschusses: The role of the EU's trade and investment policies in enhancing the EU's economic performance (own-initiative opinion)

Opinion
verabschiedet on 23/01/2019
Referenz: 
REX/509-EESC-2018

The European Economic and Social Committee would like to reiterate its commitment to the WTO as the guardian of international trade and a crucible for developing rules and disciplines to ensure fair trade, the liberalisation of trade in goods and services, and transparency in trade-related policy-making.

Stellungnahme des Ausschusses: Reforming the WTO to adapt to developments in world trade (own-initiative opinion)

Opinion
verabschiedet on 23/01/2019
Referenz: 
REX/510-EESC-2018-EESC-2018-05144-00-00-AC-TRA

Key points:

The EU today faces an increasing demand for a constructive dialogue with civil society on trade, as seen with CETA and TTIP. Domestic advisory groups (DAG) are a great way to connect citizens with trade issues. DAG should responsibly advise on all aspects of EU Trade Agreements.

Domestic advisory groups should be advisory, consultative, institutionalized and competent to cover all provisions of FTAs.

The EESC considers that the participation of civil society in all FTAs is an indispensable element in the strategic ambitions of the external policies of the EU.

The EESC considers its participation in DAGs valuable and wishes to continue to be part of all of them.

The EESC asks budgetary authorities for an additional budget to support Domestic Advisory Groups to fulfil the expected work in terms of quantity and quality.

Stellungnahme des Ausschusses: The role of Domestic Advisory Groups in monitoring the implementation of Free Trade Agreements

Opinion
verabschiedet on 18/04/2018
Referenz: 
REX/498-EESC-2017

The EU has one of the world's most open investment regimes, and collectively EU Member States have the fewest restrictions in the world on foreign direct investment (FDI). The OECD expressly acknowledged this in its FDI Regulatory Restrictiveness Index which measures statutory barriers against foreign investment in over 60 countries.

The Commission's reflection paper of 10 May 2017 on Harnessing Globalisation recognised increasing concerns about foreign investors' strategic acquisitions of European companies with key technologies. These concerns called into question the capacity of the current regulatory framework to address them.

Stellungnahme des Ausschusses: Screening of foreign direct investments into the European Union

Opinion
verabschiedet on 14/02/2018
Referenz: 
REX/500-EESC-2017

The EESC has played an important role in raising awareness of EU trade policy among civil society both in the EU and in third countries. The EESC encourages the Commission to strengthen its dialogue with civil society to develop the functioning of TSD chapters in current and future trade agreements. However, the EESC urges the Commission to be more ambitious in its approach, in particular with respect to strengthening effective enforceability of the commitments in TSD chapters, which is of crucial importance to the EESC. TSD chapters must be given equal weight to those covering commercial, technical or tariff issues.

Stellungnahme des Ausschusses: Trade and sustainable development chapters (TSD) in EU Free Trade agreements (FTA) (own-initiative opinion)

Opinion
verabschiedet on 07/12/2017
Referenz: 
REX/485-EESC-2017-EESC-2017-00788-00-00-AC-TRA

The Commission recently published a Communication on a Renewed Partnership with the ACP Group of countries. ACP-EU relations are currently governed by the Cotonou Partnership Agreement that will expire in 2020, therefore the Commission has published recommendations on what the future structure should be. Last year the EESC already drafted a general opinion on the post-Cotonou framework; this new opinion will have to answer specifically to the Commission's communication.

 

Stellungnahme des Ausschusses: Renewed partnership with African, Caribbean and Pacific countries (Communication)

Downloads: 

Renewed ACP Partnership

Opinion
verabschiedet on 07/12/2017
Referenz: 
REX/486-EESC-2017

The 2030 UN Agenda, or the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals, will be one of the top global priorities over the next 15 years, yet it received very little mention in the Commission Communication "Trade for all". Trade is specifically mentioned with regard to nine SDGs (but only once in the MDGs). UNCTAD estimate that, to meet the 17 goals and the 169 targets, at least an extra US$2.5 trillion a year will need to be found - effectively from the private sector. This opinion would seek to look into this further and aim to evaluate how much of that will need to come through trade and investment.

Stellungnahme des Ausschusses: The core role of trade and investment in meeting and implementing the sustainable development goals (own-initiative opinion)

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