The Communication stresses the EU's commitment to safeguarding an online environment providing the highest possible freedom and security, for the benefit of its citizens.
Países ACP e África
Desde a primeira Convenção de Lomé (1975) até ao Acordo de Cotonu (2000-2021), as parcerias UE ACP regeram as relações entre a UE e 79 países do Grupo dos Estados de África, das Caraíbas e do Pacífico (ACP), que recentemente passou a ser a Organização dos Estados de África, Caraíbas e Pacífico (OEACP).
Durante este período, o CESE, juntamente com a sociedade civil dos países ACP, lutou pelo reconhecimento do papel fundamental que cabe aos operadores não estatais no processo de desenvolvimento, o que acabou por acontecer com a assinatura do Acordo de Cotonou, que conferiu mandato ao CESE para organizar atividades e consultas com os meios económicos e sociais ACP UE, a fim de recolher os pontos de vista da sociedade civil e oferecer-lhe a oportunidade de fazer ouvir a sua voz. O objetivo consiste em promover intercâmbios e formular recomendações sobre assuntos e políticas pertinentes para as relações UE-ACP, que posteriormente são transmitidas aos dirigentes da UE e dos países ACP.
Em termos práticos, as atividades do CESE no domínio das relações UE-OEACP são na sua maioria realizadas sob a orientação de um Comité de Acompanhamento UE-ACP, que integra membros do CESE e representantes dos meios económicos e sociais dos países ACP.
O Comité de Acompanhamento UE-ACP mantém contactos regulares com os representantes da sociedade civil nos países ACP a diferentes níveis através de:
- Reuniões regulares do Comité de Acompanhamento UE-ACP,
- Seminários regionais nos países ACP, oferecendo um fórum para debater temas de interesse comum com os representantes da sociedade civil, alternadamente em regiões diferentes,;
- Encontros gerais trienais dos meios económicos e sociais ACP-UE.
O CESE também mantém contactos regulares com representantes dos meios económicos e sociais da União Africana, no âmbito da Estratégia Conjunta África UE. Em particular, o CESE realiza reuniões anuais com a Rede dos Atores Económicos e Sociais UE-África.
O CESE mantém, há muitos anos, um contacto regular com a Assembleia Parlamentar Paritária ACP UE através da apresentação de um relatório sobre as suas atividades nas sessões da Assembleia Plenária.
O CESE está igualmente em contacto estreito com organizações internacionais de empregadores, trabalhadores, agricultores, cooperativas e consumidores. Estas organizações nomeiam os representantes dos países ACP convidados para as reuniões organizadas pelo CESE, incluindo o Comité de Acompanhamento UE-ACP.
- The common foundation of any EU political engagement leading to an equal development partnership with Africa shall be based on a multidimensional approach, articulating the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the respect of Universal Human Rights (UHRs) - including fundamental rights, the right to a healthy environment and the freedom to conduct a business.
- The EESC advocates promoting a decent life and good prospects, creating a middle class and supporting equal partnerships by strengthening sustainable social-liberal democratic structures in Africa.
- The EESC highlights that the EU strategy on Africa must focus on Development and welcomes the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA).
- The EESC reiterates the important role of organised civil society in the up-coming ACP-EU Partnership Agreement.
L’année 2017 sera décisive pour le partenariat entre l’Europe et l’Afrique. Dans un paysage mondial en mutation rapide, l’Afrique connaît de profonds changements économiques, politiques et sociaux, et l’importance qu’elle revêt pour les dimensions intérieure et extérieure de la sécurité et de la prospérité de l’Europe est de plus en plus évidente. L’Europe et l’Afrique ont tout à gagner d’un renforcement de leurs liens politiques et économiques, mais elles ont aussi beaucoup à perdre si elles n’agissent pas.
The Commission recently published a Communication on a Renewed Partnership with the ACP Group of countries. ACP-EU relations are currently governed by the Cotonou Partnership Agreement that will expire in 2020, therefore the Commission has published recommendations on what the future structure should be. Last year the EESC already drafted a general opinion on the post-Cotonou framework; this new opinion will have to answer specifically to the Commission's communication.
The EESC is a strong advocate of a fair, well-administered and sustainable development policy at EU level. It is also very committed to the cause of greater tax justice. In recent years, questions have been raised as to whether the international tax policies of the Member States, in particular the concluding of certain types of double taxation agreements, are consistent with EU development policy objectives.
The 2030 Agenda, the new global framework for sustainable development agreed by the UN in 2015, needs to be reflected in EU's development policy, the major orientations of which are set out in the 2005 European Consensus on Development ("the Consensus").
To this end, the Commission issued Communication COM(2016) 740, "Proposal for a New European Consensus on Development: Our World, Our Dignity, Our Future" in November 2016. Interinstitutional negotiations are expected to result in its endorsement in the form of a Joint Statement by the Council, the European Parliament and the Commission, in May 2017.
Development responses to forced displacement should be tailored for each geographic region, whilst ensuring joined-up action across the European Commission and other institutions. While a development-led approach can produce considerable results with the current budget, the need for extra resources should not be ruled out. Civil society, end users, development partners and NGOs should be involved in the delivery and in making the Commission's Communication operational. Social and civil dialogue structures and processes should be enhanced and improved in partner and host countries to assist with its delivery. Entrepreneurship in the affected regions should be supported and developed as a viable development path for many forcibly displaced people. Education and training responses should be based on a lifelong learning approach. The possibility of making EU programmes available to forcibly displaced people should be considered.
The EESC recommends that the EU should aim to achieve a modern, equal and effective partnership with the ACP countries that transcends a donor-recipient relationship and is based on a coherent and integrated EU external policy, based on the principle of Policy Coherence for Development (PCD). This framework should guarantee the involvement of civil society organisations, including the private sector, whose specific task should be to monitor and assess the impact of the implementation of this Agreement on the sustainable development of the Parties. Civil society should be provided with the technical and financial support needed to undertake this role.
The EESC recommends that all forms of development support that the EU gives to third countries should fall under the same legal framework and should be subject to the same democratic scrutiny by the European Parliament, while retaining the same positive aspects of the EDF.
2015 is marked as the European Year for Development (when the process of discussion for the post-Cotonou arrangements will begin to gain momentum), but also as the year where the Millenium Development Goals (defined until 2015) will give way to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). To combine development and sustainability, all available resources of financing must be explored. The magnitude of this challenge is so large that all players including governments, private sector, banks, civil society organisations and development agencies must contribute to the implementation of these goals.
The aim of the European Year for Development 2015 is to inform EU citizens about EU development cooperation, highlighting what the European Union can already achieve as the biggest aid donor in the world and how it could do even more with the combined strength of its Member States and its institutions.