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International Trade

International trade is governed by a complex mixture of global rules agreed under World Trade Organization and bilateral and multilateral agreements. The free trade agreements are having a growing impact on citizens' rights. Under the Lisbon Treaty, EU trade policy must be conducted within the framework of the principles and objectives of the Union’s external action, including promotion of the rule of law, human rights and sustainable development.

We believe that this trend should be a guiding principle in EU trade negotiations and in trade relations. The fact that we at the EESC reconcile the positions and views of business, workers, professionals, farmers, consumers and other important stakeholders contributes real added value. We are in a position to efficiently relay the opinions of civil society and interest groups to international policy-makers both during negotiations and in the implementation of trade agreements. We have set up a Follow-up Committee on International trade to ensure that civil society has a say in the shaping of EU trade policy. We are also managing the Domestic Advisory groups set up under the trade and sustainable development chapters of the EU "new generation" trade agreements. These groups, composed of civil society representatives (from inside and outside the EESC) are responsible for identifying trade and sustainable development-related problems in the implementation of a trade agreement.

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Adopted on 23/01/2019
Reference: 
REX/510-EESC-2018-EESC-2018-05144-00-00-AC-TRA
Plenary session: 
540 -
Jan 23, 2019 Jan 24, 2019

Key points:

The EU today faces an increasing demand for a constructive dialogue with civil society on trade, as seen with CETA and TTIP. Domestic advisory groups (DAG) are a great way to connect citizens with trade issues. DAG should responsibly advise on all aspects of EU Trade Agreements.

Domestic advisory groups should be advisory, consultative, institutionalized and competent to cover all provisions of FTAs.

The EESC considers that the participation of civil society in all FTAs is an indispensable element in the strategic ambitions of the external policies of the EU.

The EESC considers its participation in DAGs valuable and wishes to continue to be part of all of them.

The EESC asks budgetary authorities for an additional budget to support Domestic Advisory Groups to fulfil the expected work in terms of quantity and quality.

EESC opinion: The role of Domestic Advisory Groups in monitoring the implementation of Free Trade Agreements

Adopted on 18/09/2012
Reference: 
REX/359-EESC-2012-770
Plenary session: 
483 -
Sep 18, 2012 Sep 19, 2012

• The EESC acknowledges the quality of civil society's contribution prior to publication of the communication, as well as the efforts made by the Commission to implement the trade-related aspects of the Agenda for Change. It also welcomes the attention given to the evaluation of trade policies in this communication.
• The EESC regrets that this new communication heralds no significant change to EU policy on the link between trade and development policies.
• The EESC reiterates its recommendation to incorporate sustainable development provisions into free-trade agreements and to provide for procedures enabling ex post analysis of these agreements by the EESC.
• The EESC recalls the importance of producing sui generis development strategies that combine domestic and trade policies with a view to sustainable and inclusive growth.

Adopted on 18/03/2015
Reference: 
REX/444-EESC-0000
Plenary session: 
506 -
Mar 18, 2015 Mar 19, 2015

Opinion on the Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council protecting against the effects of the extra-territorial application of legislation adopted by a third country and actions based thereon or resulting therefrom (recast)

Protection against the effects of the extra-territorial application of legislation adopted by a third country

Adopted on 29/03/2017
Reference: 
REX/483-EESC-2017
Plenary session: 
524 -
Mar 29, 2017 Mar 30, 2017

The EESC is committed to open and fair trade and recognises its value as a driver of growth and jobs. Therefore, the EESC calls for a level playing field between European and third country exporting producers, and for effective trade defence instruments. The EESC supports the Commission's proposal that the dumping margin should be calculated not using the standard methodology, but on the basis of benchmarks that take account of significantly distorted production and sale costs. The EESC points out that in its 2016 opinion on preserving sustainable jobs and growth in the steel industry, it already called for the standard methodology not to be used in anti-dumping and anti-subsidy investigations into Chinese imports as long as the country failed to meet the EU's five criteria for market economy status. The EESC welcomes the Commission's intention of using specific criteria to determine whether there are significant distortions in the market situation.

EESC opinion: REX/483 - Trade Defence Instruments – methodology

Adopted on 17/10/2013
Reference: 
REX/383-EESC-2013-2070
Plenary session: 
493 -
Oct 16, 2013 Oct 17, 2013

The opinion will be making recommendations where weaknesses become apparent. Since the EESC proposed this opinion the European Commission has also announced a public hearing on potential EU initiative for responsible sourcing of minerals coming from conflict-affected and high-risk areas – war zones, post-war zones, and areas vulnerable to political instability or civil unrest. The opinion on essential imports could include the EESC contribution to this initiative.

Securing essential imports for the EU - through current EU trade and related policies

Adopted on 21/09/2016
Reference: 
REX/464-EESC-0000
Plenary session: 
519 -
Sep 21, 2016 Sep 22, 2016

The EESC has played an important role in strengthening an informed civil society debate on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) through a number of TTIP-related opinions, adopted in 2014 and 2015, covering issues such as labour rights, investment protection, impact on SMEs, among others.

It is important under the present circumstances that the EESC, in order to maintain its position as a key civil society player in the TTIP debate, react to the textual proposals for TTIP negotiations on essential topics such as the sustainable development chapter, regulatory cooperation, investment and services. This will have the advantage not only of setting up the EESC position on major negotiating chapters but also of presenting concrete recommendations and pointing out the need to involve civil society in the implementation of those chapters.

The position of the EESC on specific key issues of the TTIP

Adopted on 13/05/2013
Reference: 
REX/378-EESC-2013-3361
Plenary session: 
496 -
Feb 26, 2014 Feb 27, 2014

The opinion will seek to examine how trade relations with the region can best be developed by means of a first example country, which is Morocco. Trade relations with Morocco stand out as a priority because the EU currently has the closest trade links with Morocco of all the countries in the region.

Adopted on 02/07/2015
Reference: 
REX/433-EESC-0000
Plenary session: 
509 -
Jul 01, 2015 Jul 02, 2015

The own-initiative opinion will focus on the impact of the TTIP on SMEs and reflect on the provisions that would need to be included in the TTIP in order to take account of the specific character of SMEs in the negotiations and implementation of an eventual EU-US agreement. The opinion will also look at how to increase the awareness of SMEs as to existing support services and programmes, and particularly about the new business opportunities that may arise with this agreement.

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