KAMA (Korea Automobile Manufacturers' Association)

Summary of the initiative

KAMA (Korea Automobile Manufacturers' Association)
The voluntary agreement with KAMA concerning the reduction of CO2 emissions caused by cars was concluded in 1999. The aim is to lower the average level of CO2 emissions of new cars to 140 grams per km by 2009. This agreement is based on the Commission recommendation. (Two similar voluntary agreements were concluded by ACEA in 1998 and JAMA in 1999).

Description of the Initiative


    Self/Co-Regulation Basic Act

    Title of Act
    Decision No 1753/2000/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 June 2000 establishing a scheme to monitor the average specific emissions of CO2 from new passenger cars, Official Journal L 202, 10/08/2000 P. 0001 - 0013.
    Title of Act
    Voluntary agreement by the Korean Automobile Manufacturers´ Association (KAMA) on the reduction of CO2 emissions
    Review, Revision or Sunset Clause Year
    Title of Act
    Commission Recommendation No 2000/303/EC of 13.04.2000 on the reduction of CO2 emissions from passenger cars (KAMA), Official Journal L 100 of 20.04.2000, p. 55-56.

    Geographical Coverage

    Global coverage
    Participating Countries


    Problems that lead to the introduction of Self/Co-Regulation and the adoption of the Founding Act
    Target Group(s)
    Car producers.
    Type of Instrument(s)
    Voluntary agreement.
    Level(s) at which private rules should be defined and applied
    Type of Financing
    Type of Monitoring
    Conduct an initial survey of compliance capacity of future regulateesConduct regular visits and spot checksInitiate complaints proceduresMaintain database of those bounded by the normsProduce regular reportsReceive complaints and verify if norms were breached or notReflexive dialogue with the - stakeholdersOther
    European Commissionyesyesyes
    National public authorityyesyes
    International public authority
    Private regulator (code owner)yesyes
    Private independent party with a mandate (e.g. auditors)
    Self-appointed private parties (e.g. NGOs)
    Succinct description of the type of Monitoring
    Further to the adoption of the voluntary commitment in 1999, the monitoring system includes provisions on: the principles to be applied: monitor the achievements of the associations in relation to the 140 g CO2/km target, check that the assumptions underlying the Commitments (e.g. availability of clean fuels) are respected and if not assess the possible consequences on the respect of the commitment; procedures to be followed to monitor CO2 emissions and other factors (fuels, new regulations, technologies, distortion of competition etc.); and the organisational framework: establishment of a Steering group (desk officer level) where draft joint reports are prepared and of a Supervisory group (DG level for Environment and Enterprise and high-level representatives for the Association) where the reports are finalised and adopted. In 2000, the European Parliament and the Council adopted the so-called "Monitoring decision" 1753/2000/EC, requiring Member States to provide yearly data on the CO2 performance of new cars sold in their territory. These data are available since monitoring year 2002 and form the basis for the monitoring in relation to the 140 g CO2/km target. After a transition period between industry data and EU data (industry data being slightly more favourable to the industry), the association has now agreed to only refer to EU data concerning CO2. Two similar joint monitoring systems were adopted between the Commission services and the associations (ACEA in 1998 and JAMA in 1999).
    Type of Enforcement
    Faming, shaming and blamingJudicial sanctionsMembership suspension/exclusionPrivate finesOther
    Private Regulator
    Private independent party with a mandate (e.g. auditors)
    Court system
    Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) / Online dispute resolution (ODR)
    Succinct description of the type of Enforcement
    Should it become clear, on the basis of the monitoring and after consultation with the association, that the association would not honour the commitments made, the Commission will consider the measures, including legislative ones, that shoud be taken in order to ensure that the necessary CO2 reductions are delivered.

    Results of Commission Monitoring

    Link / Reference of Evaluation
    The Commission´s review of the strategy COM(2007)19 final has concluded that the voluntary commitments have not succeeded and that the 120g target will not be met on time without further measures. Therefore the Commission has suggested proposing a legislative framework to reduce CO2 emissions from new cars and vans by the end of 2007 or at the latest by mid 2008. This will provide the car industry with sufficient lead time and regulatory certainty. The Commission has further proposed to invite car manufacturers to sign up an EU code of good practice on car marketing and advertising to promote more sustainable consumption patterns by mid-2007.