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Capitale umano e stratificazione sociale nell'Italia agricola. L'agricoltura italiana tra passato e futuro
REPORT 01/2004 drawn up on the Council's initiative, on the potential ef-fects of the forthcoming enlargement of the European Union.
In the Council's opinion, the forthcoming enlargement of the European Un-ion should enhance the construction of Europe and of the internal market, and maintain the principle of cohesion, which should impregnate all Com-munity policy. Competitiveness needs to be increased, especially in prod-ucts and ranges with a high content of technology and added value, and Spanish companies should be internationalised as a guarantee of im-provement in the quality and volume of employment, so as to take advan-tage of the opportunities afforded by the European Union. It is necessary to provide an administrative and financial framework that facilitates the presence of Spanish companies abroad, primarily in these countries, and that attracts investment to Spain. Sectoral observatories should be set up by the most representative employers? organisations and trade unions in each sector, as set out in the National Collective Bargaining Agreement 2003, extended for 2004. The social partners in the candidate countries should play a vital active role in modernising and improving labour rela-tions and in facilitating adaptation to Community regulations. Any redistri-bution of Community funds should carried out in a balanced way over transitional periods, without cutting the aid received by the less developed areas of the current European Union.
Advisory Report 2003/11 - Interaction for innovation : towards a cohesive policy on knowledge and innovation in the Netherlands
In the past few years, analysts have made it clear that the Dutch economy has a productivity problem. Labour productivity growth in the Netherlands is lagging behindthat in other wealthy countries, posing a threat to future prosperity. Satisfactory growth in output, in turn, is closely tied to a well-developed capacity for innovation.
Advisory report 2003/10 - A policy on integration for immigrants : report on integration programmes combining second-language acquisition and (training for) work
The Social and Economic Council agrees with the Dutch Cabinet that immigrants will integrate more easily intoDutch society if they not only learn Dutch but also work or take vocational training courses. More combined programmes are needed, but that would require localauthorities and institutions of vocational education to take the needs and capacities of regional employers into account in their integration policy.
Advisory report 2003/12 - Advisory report on amendments to the Works Councils Act
It is in the interest of both Works Councils and employers that, together, they be able to apply the concept of employee participation in such a way that it meets their respective needs. In view of the diversity of enterprises within the Netherlands, the Works Councils Act should therefore be as flexible as possible. Opinions are divided within the Social and Economic Council of the Netherlands(Sociaal Economische Raad, SER) on whether this makes it necessary to amend the current Act.
OPINION 1/2004 on the Bills for Royal Decrees adopting the Railway Sector Regulations, the Statute of the Railway Infrastructure Administrator (ADIF) and the Statute of the Public Corporation RENFE-Operadora.
The Council welcomes the referral of the three texts under consideration by the Ministry of Public Works. It expresses its concern as to the model?s economic and financial viability and considers that RENFE?s ?historical debt? should be dealt with in the shortest possible period and that it should not affect the effective opening up of the rail sector. The Council further considers that part of the additional revenue from land sales, not included in the economic memoranda, should be used to benefit the community as a whole (in funding for public projects, state-protected housing, etc.).The Council considers it essential for the transfer of staff and assets be-tween ADIF and RENFE-Operadora to be fluid in a transitional stage, to-gether with coordination between the two bodies. To encourage competi-tion, the Council recommends a review of certain requirements for railway licensing and authorisation and, in general, the procedures for regulating competition. The Council considers that the Bills in question should estab-lish a framework that generates legal security in crucial aspects such as the subrogation of RENFE-Operadora and ADIF in current contracts and cur-rent expenditure and procedures, among others. It also recommends that the introduction of overbooking into the railway sector be reconsidered.
REPORT 03/2003 Second Report drawn up on the Council's initiative, on the social and employment situation of women in Spain
The report was first conceived as an update of a report drawn up by the Council nearly ten years ago (Report 3/1994) on the situation of women in society and employment in Spain, but the changes of the last decade made it indispensable to include issues not covered by the previous report. The new report was therefore structured in eight chapters: introduction, demog-raphy, education, labour market, work at home, reconciliation of working and family life, participation in politics and society, and proposed conclu-sions.The Spanish socio-demographic situation coincides broadly with that of other Mediterranean countries, albeit with more pronounced characteristics: a late but sharp drop in the birth rate, a moderate fall in average household size, and a strong predominance of women in one-parent and single-family households, often with economic difficulties. Finally we should note the sharp growth in the presence of women in recent influxes of immigrants, forming the sole basis of population growth in Spain, and whose main mi-gratory strategy, especially in the case of extra-Community women, is to enter the labour market.The rise in women?s average educational standard is one of the variables that best help explain the changes that have occurred in the situation of women working in and outside the home. The growing importance of edu-cation for women is also apparent in their better performance in each stage of the education system, though the gender separation in educational pathways chosen by girls and boys remains. This circumstance results in a greater difficulty for women in progressing from education to employment, and in a less favourable employment situation. Remedying this will require more stimulating educational environments for both genders and a better gender balance in the integration into male-dominated occupations of those achieving good results in vocational training.As to women?s participation in the labour market, it remains, despite notable growth in the past ten years, one of the lowest in the EU, and is still lower than the male participation rate. The figures for Spanish women are also notable for lower rates of part-time work and wage-earning and a higher rate of temporary work, though the number of female employers has grown appreciably. Moreover, education does not seem to be sufficient to make women more employable, and though the sharp rise in women?s educa-tional standards coincides with a certain tendency towards diversification of professional activities, the dual pattern remains by which women, regard-less of their age, are more conspicuous and gender-typecast in both high-skill and low-skill occupations. The extraordinary influx of young female immigrants, who have tended to be employed in low-skill occupations in domestic service, hotels and catering, commerce, agriculture and other business services, may have blurred the age division in that duality. Finally the study notes the existence of a wage gap and points to the contribution of collective bargaining thereto, or at least in impeding its reduction, and its virtual influence on professional diversification, a vital factor in explaining the phenomenon.Women?s greater presence in employment and their release from work at home as a main activity has not been kept up with by development in the distribution of responsibilities in the family and at work. Women are still the main carers for children and dependent adults, and this entails a double burden of work for many of them. Their professional life continues to be af-fected by this double working day despite the progress made in labour law and the new emphasis on policy to reconcile working and family life. The elements impeding change include cultural prejudices, different career pat-terns and shortcomings in support services and infrastructure for carers of children and dependent adults.Finally, as to women?s participation in decision-taking, although this has in-creased and many initiatives to this end have been taken in various spheres over the last decade, these steps forward seem not to be have been enough to remedy the current imbalance. There is still no balanced representation of women in any of the three branches of national govern-ment, nor in the internal organisation of political parties, in organised civil society through organisations representing citizens? economic and social in-terests, or in academic and scientific institutions.
REPORT 04/2003 drawn up on the Council's initiative, on the situation of disabled people in Spain
The drawing up of this report on the Council?s initiative was a continuation of previous work on disability, following the report drawn up in 1995 under the title ?Report on the situation of employment for the disabled and pro-posals for the promotion thereof?, which included an in-depth study of inte-gration in employment, addressing the reality of disabled employment from both a quantitative and a political and legislative perspective.This report, on the other hand, gives the problem a wider treatment, so it updates the previous report and also brings in other aspects of similar im-portance to employment. In all these aspects the authors seek to combine the elements of diagnostic analysis, using data from the Survey on Disabili-ties, Handicaps and States of Health conducted by the Spanish National Statistical Office (INE) in 1999 (though other complementary sources were also used), with the most notable policies being pursued in each sphere.The report is structured in four chapters: the first addresses the situation of disabled people in Spain; the second discusses integration policy, including the aspects of health, education, employment, economic benefits and so-cial services; the third reviews other integration measures, including those concerning accessibility, protection of rights and property, taxation, and the protection of families with disabled members; and the fourth deals with the involvement of society at large in policies aimed at the disabled. Lastly there is a section of conclusions and proposals summarising the report?s most notable descriptive aspects and offering an assessment of the main policies in the field along with various proposals which, like the rest of the report, are the fruit of debate within the Council.The following are the main conclusions and recommendations:In the field of education, the Council considers that the integration of dis-abled pupils in ordinary schools requires a greater effort by the public au-thorities, without forgetting the need to provide lifelong learning to train every disabled pupil for work and for life in general.As to employment, the report contends that the best way to integrate the disabled into society is to promote their access to ordinary employment. In this regard there is a need to enhance the role of the public employment services, to encourage and ensure compliance with reserve quotas, and to continue subsidies, grants and incentives for the employment of disabled people. As to formulas for sheltered employment, the report supports spe-cial employment centres, provided that their social nature and their role as a bridge to ordinary employment are maintained, and that they are based on criteria of economic viability. The report also advocates the setting up of a register of special employment centres showing their development and their impact on employment for the disabled, and the urgent setting up of multidisciplinary teams.Regarding accessibility, the report highlights the considerable extent of regulations on the issue, but also the infrequency with which they are re-spected, so it urges the various tiers of government to treat compliance with regulations on architectural barriers and accessibility as a matter of priority.Finally, regarding fiscal policy, the report recommends that the public au-thorities be required to set up an enhanced social protection system for those disabled people that are unable to set up a protected estate.
I lineamenti fondamentali della contrattazione territoriale contenuta nell'Archivio del CNEL e la contrattazione territoriale nei distretti industriali
Information Letter of the European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) - no.66 - April 2010
no.66 - avril 2010
Declaration of the Economic and Social Councils (ESCs) of the member states of the european union and of the European Economic and Social Committee at the annual meeting of their Presidents and Secretaries-General, 13 november 2014