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12/03/2015

Rapporto conclusivo in materia di gioco d'azzardo, infiltrazioni della criminalità organizzata e promozione della legalità

03/08/2015

La contrattazione collettiva di secondo livello in Italia: caratteristiche e impatto sulla performance delle imprese

09/06/2017
Others

Rapport annuel sur l'état de la France - Réconcilier la France
La France se trouve à un moment de son histoire qui appelle un sursaut collectif. Les Français.e.s figurent en effet parmi les européen.ne.s les plus pessimistes pour le futur de leur pays. La France rencontre certes de réels problèmes en matière d’emploi, d’innovation, d’endettement ou de réponses à la crise écologique. Mais notre incapacité à définir un projet commun aggrave la situation : de ce fait, nous ne nous mobilisons pas assez autour des atouts du pays afin d’affronter les défis du XXIe siècle. à l’origine de cette difficulté, on trouve en particulier la tension entre une ambition élevée en matière d’égalité, largement partagée par nos concitoyen.ne.s, et sa mise en œuvre imparfaite. Si la France reste un des pays les moins inégalitaires, grâce notamment à la redistribution opérée par l’action publique, ces inégalités se sont sensiblement accrues ces dernières années, creusant l’écart entre réalité et objectifs affichés. Pour y remédier, le CESE propose des pistes pour refonder la cohésion sociale et remobiliser la société autour de la préparation de son avenir.

    Rapport annuel sur l'état de la France

  • fr

24/02/2016
Economy and Finance

REPORT 01/2016 analysing economic governance in the European Union, adopted by the Council in ordinary session on 24 February 2016
The Spanish ESC approved its own-initiative report analysing economic governance in the European Union by a large majority This report is the Council’s third on the subject in recent years. The first was Report 2/2012 on new economic governance in the EU and growth, the second, Report 1/2014 on developments in economic governance in the European Union, and this third report is intended chiefly to review the actions taken over this period in order to assess the degree of progress in managing the crisis and in redesigning economic governance in the EMU, highlighting the challenges that remain.The report analyses the economic situation in the EU and discerns a general recovery, though with divergences across the various States. The employment rate has been falling but it is still two and a half percentage points higher than at the start of the crisis.The increase in activity has been supported by easing on the financial markets, an expansive monetary policy, relaxing of the fiscal consolidation process, a fall in oil prices and the depreciation of the euro. But other factors may undermine the economic upturn: a slowdown in the growth of emerging economies, less favourable prospects for raw-material exports, the raising of interest rates by the US Federal Reserve, the slowdown in world trade, international geopolitical tensions adding to uncertainty or difficulties in getting European inflation onto the desired track.The Council judges that there is very little room for manoeuvre in monetary policy for engineering a recovery in growth, which would require additional actions with fiscal policy measures. The contractionary fiscal policies adopted since 2010 are hampering recovery, with a generalised fall in public investment. The EU should move towards a less restrictive approach in its fiscal policy, albeit without questioning the need for fiscal consolidation, so as to substantially boost public investment. The Council also considers that greater flexibility should be allowed in complying with the consolidation roadmap for the States still in the corrective arm of the Stability and Growth Pact.The European Fund for Strategic Investments (EFSI), though a positive tool, has arrived late and is insufficient. Developing strategic investment will depend on mobilising private capital, with social and environmental considerations and territorial cohesion taking a back seat. The Council points to the risk that this initiative will chiefly benefit big companies with most funding capacity and that it will concentrate investments in the more developed EU countries with stronger public sectors, not helping with the necessary structural convergence. The EFSI, fleshing out the Juncker revival plan, appears unsuitable for giving fiscal impetus to the regions where the crisis is most severe and which have less budgetary margin for backing investment projects. Moreover the fund’s life of just three years gives rise to concern about the lack of tools with a longer timeframe for automatically addressing future crises of demand and investment.Regarding new developments towards banking union, the report highlights rules on capital requirements, restructuring and recapitalisation of banks and deposit guarantee schemes, though the process is still incomplete.The Single Supervisory Mechanism has limited scope, and though the Single Resolution Mechanism has become operational and the Single Resolution Fund has now started up, a bridge mechanism is still needed until the Fund reaches its full size in 2023. Also lacking is a public backing mechanism at European level, i.e. a fiscal backstop, to provide for any situation of acute need once the Fund has been fully financed, and the mechanisms available are insufficient.Regarding capital market union, the Council considers that, though at an early stage, it represents a significant change for the European financial system, traditionally dependent on bank financing but now seeking to increase the share of alternative sources of finance.As to combating cross-border tax avoidance, rapid and substantial progress has been made in administrative cooperation, extending the scope of automatic information exchanges.In tax harmonisation, no substantive steps have been taken towards establishing a consolidated common tax base in the EU for corporate tax, or for establishing a tax on European financial transactions.Regarding the integrated budgetary framework, the Council believes it would be reasonable to strengthen the EU budget and to establish mechanisms for mutualising public debt, promoting macroeconomic stabilisation and structural convergence in the euro area. But no progress has been made in this field, and moreover the project has been put off indefinitely.As to national competitiveness boards, which are to have a mandate to assess whether wages are evolving in line with productivity and to influence wage-setting processes, the Council expresses a strong concern that this power may clash with the model on which wages are determined in the Spanish institutional framework. The Council believes it would be advisable for the factors influencing competitiveness to be addressed in the context of European social dialogue.The Council sees a need for greater coordination and convergence in the field of economic and social policy in order to reduce the great disparities in competitiveness and social cohesion within the euro area. Economic and social policy requires greater coordination and should be geared to developing the single market and to preserving the European social model. Though the new macroeconomic imbalance procedure gives more attention to social aspects and employment, these remain subordinated to economic and financial developments, resulting in lopsided progress in the sphere of governance.In the context of the latest crisis, the European Union has lacked an integrated strategy in economic and social terms, as well as adequate governance mechanisms. The Commission has taken positive steps in the field of policy as well as in providing instruments for its implementation, although they remain insufficient.The new economic governance has had the effect of reducing the role of trade unions and employers’ organisations at European level in the decision-making process. This was acknowledged by the European Commission in its communication “On steps towards Completing Economic and Monetary Union”. It is also worth noting that the “Five Presidents’ Report” proposes that the various governments should consult the social partners more systematically before drawing up structural reform agendas.The weaknesses in institutional architecture have persisted. The deficiency of Community governance is the difficulty that Member States have in taking fast, joint and operative decisions to tackle the challenges that arise. The EU faces three crises: that of Community governance, especially as regards the euro; a crisis of asylum and refuge, as the issue has not been addressed jointly and effectively and moreover it has questioned Europe’s traditional values and culture of hospitality and even the principle of free movement; and a neighbourhood crisis, ranging from Ukraine to Syria and showing the weakness of European foreign policy. Europe continues to work on an intergovernmental logic that has generated a loss of legitimacy in EU institutions and a democratic deficit, resulting in a disaffection towards Europe among the general public. Also the EU as a region has lost influence on the international scene.Regarding the clarifying of decision processes and the enhancement of the European Parliament’s decision-making powers, no results have been achieved, as the changes required have not been made to the Treaties. Nor has there been any success in strengthening the role of national parliaments.The Council approves the Commission’s greater transparency with the publishing of information on meetings held by Commissioners and the EU transparency register. This latter point may help the European public to recover some pro-European feeling.We may conclude that we still have a long way to go in configuring a political and institutional EU architecture liable to ensure that the transfer of sovereignty by Member States to the Union in the main economic and financial spheres is accompanied by greater democratic legitimacy and accountability on the part of EU institutions.

21/09/2016
Labour, Lisbon Strategy - Growth and Jobs

Recovery strategy – Trainee schemes – Introduction of a global commitment for employers – Annual evaluation – Report No. 100 (Joint report of the National Labour Council and the Central Economic Council)

04/05/2016
International Policies

ILO – Report for the period 1 June 2013 to 31 May 2016, made by the Government of Belgium in accordance with article 22 of the Constitution of the International Labour Organization, on the measures which it has taken to give effect to the provisions of...
ILO – Report for the period 1 June 2013 to 31 May 2016, made by the Government of Belgium in accordance with article 22 of the Constitution of the International Labour Organization, on the measures which it has taken to give effect to the provisions of the Tripartite Consultation (International Labour Standards) Convention, 1976 – Report No. 96

07/06/2016
Social Policies

Harmonization of the status of blue-collar and white-collar workers – Supplementary pensions – Article 14/4, § 2 of the Supplementary Pensions Law – Evaluation – Report No. 97

19/07/2016
Labour

Framework of actions for youth employment – Third follow-up report – Report No. 99 (Joint report of the National Labour Council and the Central Economic Council)

19/07/2016
Labour, Social Policies

Evaluation of the first-job agreements scheme – Report No. 98 (Joint report of the National Labour Council and the Central Economic Council)

21/10/2015
Labour

REPORT 03/2015 on professional competences and employability, adopted by the Council in ordinary session on 21 October 2015
The Council considers that economic transformations are causing occupational changes for which measures are needed to prevent long-term unemployment from becoming structural and imbalances from forming between the supply of workers and the demands of companies, thereby hampering job creation.In western economies a polarisation is occurring in employment, with bigger shares being taken by more highly qualified jobs and at the same time by jobs with low or intermediate qualification levels. In all events this polarisation is a trend which may be acted upon by means of reducing the share of low-qualified jobs and increasing that of higher and intermediate ones. In the Spanish case this polarisation is also present, though Spain’s employment is on average less well qualified than in the main EU countries.To resolve the imbalances hampering job creation we need to promote employability, understood in a broad sense involving a range of stakeholders and policies (education, active employment, economic and sectoral policies) so as to promote the creation of jobs of quality.Companies’ job offers have moved on from the traditional concept of tasks and skills to that of roles and competences. Beyond candidates’ knowledge, as demonstrated by qualifications or professional experience, companies demand competences such as commercial aptitude, team spirit or proficiency with languages or new technologies. Hence the importance of enhancing professional competences – a concept going well beyond formal qualifications. The Council also notes that for 77% of companies, experience is the main factor when recruiting a candidate. Thus mechanisms such as in-work training are essential for facilitating the shift between education and work.The successive education law reforms show the need for greater stability in the broad outline of education policy based on a wide social and political consensus, guaranteeing coordination and cooperation across the various levels of government with responsibilities for education and employment. Governance in the education and training system should take more account of employability issues, with participation mechanisms catering for the various stakeholders. Given the highly diverse measures adopted in recent years, an integral assessment needs to be made of their effects on medium and long-term trends in employability as part of governance in the education and training system and active employment policies, with the participation of the social partners.The Council points to the need for measures to reduce the school dropout rate as well as dropouts from vocational training, such as an individual register of pupils and students to monitor their attendance, performance-linked monetary incentives for students to help them remain in the system, and also incentives to encourage companies to collaborate more closely with training centres.The Council stresses the importance of providing stable structures for workers’ lifelong learning, refocusing public resources on the sectors with the biggest gaps between training and jobs. The Council notes that despite the increase in training provision meeting the demands of or subsidised by companies in training for employment, involving nearly 30% of private-sector firms, this growth stalled in 2014. Accordingly the reasons for this situation should be investigated. In particular there has been less presence in training of small and mid-sized companies.In training demanded by companies, the supply and demand of vocational competences needs to be better matched, based on the detection of workforce training needs, planning of training and utilisation of the resources available in the system. The Council highlights the role of contracts in training and apprenticeship and notes that there are not many trainee contracts, which ought to be a formula for acquiring practical experience and entering the labour market.The jobs of university graduates are below their qualification level in 52.5% of cases, which represents an over-qualification rate well above the European average of 41.5%.In graduate qualifications we find an undue concentration in some fields and lower performance in others such as mathematics, in an imbalance that may originate in pre-university education.The Council advocates greater coordination in university policy, with strategic planning of study programmes so as to anticipate mismatches in qualifications and competences between employment supply and demand. Resolving these mismatches will involve not only education policy but also science, innovation, industrial, regional development and other policies, and in all events the links between universities and business need to be tightened.The Council judges it is necessary to substantially develop the procedures for assessment and accreditation of professional skills acquired through experience at work and the resulting offering of complementary instruction as required for obtaining a vocational training qualification.Job-matching is the chief instrument for suiting supply to demand in employment and for identifying the competences possessed by workers along with those which would be required to get a job. The Council stresses the role that the public employment services should play on the job market and considers that this role is currently very limited, and moreover points to the need for sufficient funding and efficient use of the resources available.

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