EU energy policy has been successful in many ways, in particular in reducing greenhouse gases emission, boosting the use of renewable energy and increasing consumer choice. Still most energy issues are dominated by national interests. Recent international political and energy developments have brought new challenges to the forefront. Concerns over security of energy supply have become acute in some Member States. Consumers, especially the vulnerable, suffer from increased energy costs in the face of the economic downturn and industry struggles for competitiveness against lower energy prices in competing regions. In spite of great successes in the field of renewable energy, Europe is at risk of losing its frontrunner position.